Efficacy and Safety of Inebilizumab in IgG4-Related Disease: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

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Introduction

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a debilitating multiorgan disease characterized by recurring flares leading to organ dysfunction, decreased quality of life, and mortality. Glucocorticoids, the standard of care for IgG4-RD, are associated with substantial treatment-related toxicity. Inebilizumab, an antibody directed against CD19, mediates the rapid and durable depletion of CD19+ B cells thought to be involved in IgG4-RD pathogenesis. We describe the first international, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of B-cell depletion for flare prevention in IgG4-RD (MITIGATE).

Methods

The study was designed by an international panel of physicians with expertise in IgG4-RD. Critical trial design decisions included the selection of participants, definition of clinically meaningful primary and secondary endpoints, accommodation of standard of care, and development of flare diagnostic criteria. The study is approved for conduct in 22 countries.

Planned Outcomes

The primary efficacy endpoint is time from randomization to the occurrence of the first centrally adjudicated and investigator-treated disease flare during the 1-year randomized controlled period. A set of novel, organ-specific flare diagnostic criteria were developed specifically for this trial, incorporating symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, imaging study results, and pathology data. MITIGATE aims to accrue 39 flares for the primary endpoint, which provides sufficient power to detect a relative risk reduction of 65% in the inebilizumab group. It is anticipated that enrollment of 160 participants will achieve this goal. Additional endpoints include safety, annualized flare rate, flare-free complete remission, quality-of-life measures, and cumulative glucocorticoid use. MITIGATE represents the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of any treatment strategy conducted in IgG4-RD. Data from this study will provide insights into the natural history and pathophysiology of IgG4-RD and the efficacy and safety of B-cell depletion as a therapeutic avenue.

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